Thousand the massacres organized dashnak by Armenia in 1918-1920, in the best way testify to it. In article under heading the “republic Ararat”, published in newspaper “Azerbaijan”, this purpose was promulgated.
It was written in newspaper «Seven days ago there has arrived to us in the Gara – Iman peasant Gulu and informed, that the Armenian group, under leadership of officers Filimov and Nishanyov, settlements Gizil Vang, Subasan and Zagali at night have been surrounded. All men under a pretext, that police officer demand them, have trapped, and began to plunder these villages. Peasants begged and asked them, that they are ready to execute everything that from them will demand, if only they have released. They were answered: if we shall destroy two and three settlements Muslim, we all the same shall not be saturated with revenge. Even if does not begin and 30 same villages it of anything in comparison with blood and victims, which Armenians have incurred even on one of insignificant streets in Baku during September events.
4 days prior to route of these three villages in settlement Chamurlu has been killed by Armenians of 4 men and 6 women, and at men heads have been cut off, and at women breasts have been cut out. We have buried them.
Peasant woman of the settlements of Sharaba who was mocked, informed, that in village Sharab all men, children burned in «tandir» are cut out, then from all village have chosen 8 women who have kept twenty days, having dishonored and having disgraced them, and then set at liberty».
In the report of the governor of Ganja describing heavy position of the Muslim population, it is spoken, that «atrocities of them do not know borders, behind them all horrors of the gloomy Middle Ages turn pale. It would not be desirable to trust, that in 20th century there is people has sounded across all Europe about culture, which applies all receptions of savages to the defenseless peace population. It is hard to write these lines under impression of those horrors which have echoes in daily official reports and the reports got from all ends of province, women everywhere are forced, children are burnt on fires, tongues, ears, are cut out, torture, mockery around.
Stopping the report on the Armenian statements and atrocities, I add, that in one district Zangazur it is crushed and plundered 105 (hundred five) settlements, the list which I put».
In article «War with Moslems, Armenians again attack» “Scotland-Liddel (Tiflis, on January, 30, 1919) was written: «Armenia eternally searches collisions and when it achieves it, it in the propagation names oppression that is actually quite deserved punishment ». For dashnak, the killed Armenian always is valuable. If as it is necessary to use such case it can bring many benefits to business of propagation. Speaking words Nuri Pasha, with which 1 recently had conversation: «When the Armenian has been killed, he rises and shouts – I have been killed during beatings».
In same article the following is spoken: «In the present performance in Zangazur Armenians do not doubt of the time success. The most part of their active armed forces served earlier in Russian army, the Azerbaijan armies will consist almost exclusively of young recruits. However, this success cannot be long: Armenians not only are not right, they also in minority. But the day will come when all Moslems would rise as one person against the oppressors and when this day would come, nothing can rescue Armenian people».
«During Menshevist board in Georgia Armenians, and Armenians during time dashnak boards unpunished were pursued exterminated Moslems. Because the desire of the American and European “patrons” following a principle «was those Divide and dominate».
«Destruction of Azerbaijanis by Armenians began for a long time, has been lifted on a level of a state policy and has left for limits of Azerbaijan. Whether it is necessary to be surprised, that only during board dashnak – the period of a 30-month’s presence at authority (May 1918-November 1920) 60 % of the Azerbaijan population have been annihilated».
Picturing the gangster groups of the Armenian state, which have crushed the Azerbaijan villages on northern bank of Lake Goycha, G. Muradjan writes: «…As a result of the actions which have been lead by our state… The population of these villages (Tokhluja, Aghbulag, Ardanish, etc.) has left borders of Armenia. I saw the villages, which have stayed without owners, there except for several cats, and the dogs surprised with the absolute silence, were nobody. The population of these villages left, having left the big districts of a potato, wheat and barley. The state can receive there from 2 million pounds wheat and half-million pounds of a potato».
«Other Armenian “heroes” has forced women, mothers and sisters completely to undress and, having removed to beforehand prepare dam, have forced to go before people as goose. These geeks beat women and forced them to remain there for hours. Then have ordered to arrest them. Caused young women and girls to itself at night, offended, and after that gave their security guards».
In August 1918 in Muslim villages Igdir and districts, Echmiadzin massacres have begun. Under the instruction of khmbabet Dro, more than 60 settlements have been crushed, the men of these villages have been cut out almost entirely, and beautiful women – were taken out.
In the beginning of January 1919 under influence of events in Zangazur, also characterized violent eviction and clarification of territory from Moslems, inhabitant’s upland parts of this district, in quantity up to 40 thousand persons, ran in limits of Jabrail, Shusha and Javanshir districts of Karabagh and other places of republic.
«… At the end of a summer of 1919 in Vedibasar, position of Moslems in southwest Azerbaijan and in Armenia has extremely become aggravated. The most part of Moslems of Armenia due to these events has turned to the refugees deprived home and doomed for all those sufferings who usually are destiny, of refugees. After returning in the settlements they together with other part of the Muslim population again were exposed repeatedly to route, houses and the grounds of them have been seized by Turkish Armenians. The number of such destitute, ruined Moslems in Armenia only on Newer – Bayazid, Echmiadzin and to districts Irevan reached 200 thousand persons».
Representatives of Moslems of province Irevan inform Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic the followings: «Under exact information Andranik, under the pretext of support of Armenians of refugees, with the group goes to province Irevan to the aid of the Armenian armies struggling with Moslems in this province. It threatens Moslems of province Irevans with the big danger, all refugees were Turkish citizens who want to place on the places occupied by Moslems. As the proof that fact can serve this that from republic Ararat now moves Armenians in places occupying with Moslems against will of the last force the weapon, and on this ground there was a true war between Moslems and Armenians».
There are many documents, testifying about what miseries have fallen to many Azerbaijanis of Armenia in 1918-1920 what to mind before death should be taken out incomprehensible tortures to innocent people, is especial to women and children.
«All Muslim villages of 1st police station of district Sisiyan, the majority of villages of 2nd site, the most part of villages of 3rd, 4th and 5th sites are completely destroyed. Many villages Armenians have completely razed to the ground and 50000 refugees – Moslems have found a haven in district Jabrayil».
Under certificates of eyewitnesses and official documents, in district Zangazur 115 Muslim villages have been crushed. (In archival documents the list of 115 villages were made – author).
In the named villages 3257 men, 2276 women, 2196 children were killed; 1060 men, 794 women, 425 children were wounded. On all districts, 10068 persons of the Muslim population were killed and crippled. However, it is difficult to present, that passion the Armenian terrible atrocities was exact, and consequently these figures should be considerably increased. Hasty flight of Moslems during these terrible collisions in district does not allow count up all victims. However, based on certificates survived it was possible to ascertain, what atrocities were made by Armenians in district.
Destruction of more than hundred villages of Zangazur, the robbery of hundred thousand heads of cattle, destruction of gardens, fields have finished economy of Muslim district with a beggarly condition, more than 50.000 refugees have found a refuge in villages of Azerbaijan. By simple calculations, the damage put to Azerbaijanis has made 1 billion roubles.
The government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in order not to give an opportunity to distribution of false information about events in Zangazur had considered necessary to inform the following: «Within almost whole year regarding district Zangazur the various armed gangs consisting of Armenians operated. These gangs terrorized the population and, not recognizing authority of the Azerbaijan government, attacked Muslim settlements, betraying their destruction, ruined the peace population, which has been compelled to leave familiar spots, and to wander in searches of a haven on the next districts. Over 60 thousand Muslim refugees continue and to remain still nowadays open-air, testing all horrors of famine and a cold».
«Is it not genocide? The formulation of the United Nations of 1947 says: «the Genocide is not only physical destruction of people or its part, but also creation of those intolerable conditions of a life at which local residents are compelled to leave native places». (Azerbaijanis of Armenia met with it).
“Scotland -Liddel” in article «the Armenian-Tatar agreement. Approach of the world in Karabagh» informs: «When I was in Shusha in January, I have told to one English officer, that I am going to go in district Zangezur to be convinced, in what position there are refugees – Moslems whom was about 40 thousand, all – suffering from Armenians».
In the list of the Muslim villages crushed and left until March 1918 in province Irevan, 199 villages (100626 persons), and representing 15155 facilities are named. These figures are taken from the Caucasian calendar (1908). In view of an increase in population in 1908-1918, the population of the crushed villages made persons.
For last two months, 1919 in Echmiad and districts Irevan and Surmalin 96 persons were killed, and all villages in Irevan district (except for Zangibasar).
Because of accord with «historical repetition» the serious situation developed in region within more than eight years, expedient was to result a fragment from the report of the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic:
Again formed Azerbaijan government to which had to install the comparative order in the central places, even in the residence, naturally, could not react properly to occurrence in such, as Shusha, Garagin, Javanshir and Zangazur, the remote districts of movements, not having not only physical strength, but also in view of the private termination of the message in the most part of Azerbaijan. Investigation of all, it was non-recognition mostly the Armenian population highland parts of the named districts of the Azerbaijan government and, certainly, the hostile attitude to Moslems, as to supporters of this government. Position has even more become aggravated with occurrence in those places of military Armenian parts under leadership of Andranik, “campaign” which has frankly declared the purpose: tearing away of these territories from Azerbaijan and connection to Armenia. In addition, honest-minded people have appeared from the local population, set by the same purpose, but often not disdaining robberies, violence and murders. About 150 Muslim settlements was ruined and plundered in that district and the weight of refugees a stream has rushed on lowland in Aghdam and other places».
To be silent about bloody tragedies of 1905 means 1918-1920 to be indifferent to continuing to bleed to not healing wounds. Documents resulted about it; once again prove arguments, that an ethnic animosity, national dissension in general does not give anything to any people. That till 1988 in the historical literature almost was spoken nothing about what disasters were brought to Azerbaijan with an ethnic animosity, the Armenian aggression, at all has not reduced an opposition, on the contrary, has strengthened, having created in the certain degree a basis favorable to it. It is necessary, that the public knew the truth that still proceeding national dissension between Armenians and Azerbaijanis is not necessary neither Azerbaijan, nor Armenian for peoples that in result the peace population perishes and sustains losses only people.
Benefit from it authors of artful plans always have, the governmental circles and is especial instigators, ideologists of an ethnic animosity. It statements of People’s Deputies of Armenia of Lyudmila Arutyunyan and Henrikh Igityan on Emergency session of the Supreme Council of the USSR, discussing confirm a question of revolution in the country. L. Arutyunyan, having addressed to the Chairman of a Supreme Council of the USSR A. Lukjanov has resolutely declared: «In kindling all national conflicts, in etching one people on another you are guilty». G. Igityan has even more sharply expressed, having named responsible for innocently precast in the country and including in Karabagh blood, the Secretary General of a Central Committee of the CPSU M. S. Gorbachyov.
Despite of especially subjective attitude to events in MGAR, late academician A. Saharov has precisely determined a unseemly role of the central press in destabilization of national attitudes: «I should note certain “asymmetry” in a role of the Azerbaijan and Armenian party in development of the conflict and biased, in my opinion to opinion, positions of the central authorities – is especial in the first months and the central press».
Up to an establishment of the Soviet authority in Armenia the destiny of the Azerbaijanis living there, has been predetermined by the same policy: to reap bitter fruits of the ethnic animosity, imperial Russia heated that, England, France. Only as a result of slaughter having place two times in the first quarter of a century even by approximate calculations have been killed, became refugees and have suffered various damage about two millions Azerbaijanis. But after November, 1920, having found out about falling dashnak the governments, Azerbaijanis of Armenia have gradually started to come back to the ground of the great-grandfathers, having forgotten the last enmity, began to adjoin again to Armenians, together being engaged in peace work. And if in 1920 in all Armenia was all 10 thousand Azerbaijanis in 1922 together with the comeback refugees their number has reached 77.767 persons, and in 1931 – 105.838 persons.
The new period had also new requirements. On the foreground questions of accommodation in the native centers of the returned Azerbaijanis, their welfare development was put forward. A number of the actions directed on development of culture have been carried out. For struggle against illiteracy, for preparation of the teacher’s staff, this did not suffice opened schools, in the first years of the Soviet authority in Leninakan, Kirovakan and in Darachichak of short-term rates, have been organized.
In the decree signed by chairman of Chairman of National Commissioners Armenian SSR Sarkis Kasyan said that in places of residing of Armenians a state language to count Armenian, and in places of residing of Azerbaijanis – Turkish (Azerbaijan – author.). In places of compact residing Azerbaijanis in Amasiya, Basarkechar, Vadi, Garabaghlar, Zangibasar, districts Krasnoselsky the Azerbaijan language was a state language. In these districts till 1953 that is before mass resettlement of the Azerbaijanis the first secretaries of district committees of a party and chairmen of district executive committees were Azerbaijanis Ibish Abbasov, Jafar Valibayov, Rza Valibayov, Rza Rzayev, Ali Mammadov, Huseyn Mammadov, Talib Musayev, Hasham Shahbazov, Gulmammad Mammadov, etc.
In districts of the mixed residing Armenians and Azerbaijanis in republic – in Gafan, Echmiad, Yekhegnadzor, Azizbayov, Kalinin, Megrin, Sisiyan, Stepanavan, Ijevan was a private order according to which one of secretaries of a district committee of a party or chairman of a district of executive committee, or his assistant should be the Azerbaijanian.
On supervising posts in party and Soviet, bodies in republic there were many Azerbaijanis. Among them chairman of the Commission of small nationalities at the Central Executive committee of Armenia, the assistant to the national commissioner of internal affairs of Armenia Bala Efendiyev, the secretary of Central Committee CP of Armenia Mammad Isgandarov, the head of a department of propagation and propaganda of Central Committee Akber Rzaev, the First Vice-president of the Council of Ministers Rza Velibekov, Minister of Justice of the Republic Safar Almammadov, minister of social security Ali Taghizade, the head of department of roads Huseyin Abdullayev and others.
During all periods of activity of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR one of vice-presidents the Azerbaijanis was Armenian. 12-18 deputies of Azerbaijanis participated in work of all convocations of the Supreme Council.
In all villages where Azerbaijanis lived, were open: schools, clubs, libraries, and in the some people and kindergartens. In open in Yerevan pedagogical technical school and pedagogical institute (at faculties historical, philological, language and literatures, geographical, physical and mathematical the Azerbaijan sector and its correspondence branches) prepared the teacher’s staff for these schools.
Since 1925, publishing houses of Central Committee of Armenia, the Yerevan city committee of a party set, the Central Executive Committee, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Justice, alongside with books on Armenian, let out also books in the Azerbaijan language. In Yerevan, since 1921, one by one republican newspapers “Ranjbar”, “Zangi”, «Gizil Shafag» start to leave, “Communist”, then “Advice Ermenistan”, in six districts (Amasiya, Basarkechar, Vadi, Garabaghlar, Zangibasar, Krasnoselo) are issued the newspapers, and in eight districts – regional newspapers translating into the Azerbaijan language.
In 1922, the Azerbaijan theatre existing in Irevan since April 10, 1882 is restored, and since 1926 it gets the official status of the State drama theatre. In 1940 for statement “Othello” it becomes the winner of All-Union Shakespearian competition.
After in 1920 of Armenia have been presented primordial Azerbaijan territories – the district Yeni Basarkechar of district Irevan Bajazid of province Vedibasar district, Irevan district and district Ganja-Zangezur province (the general district 9800 km2), at Armenians again has inflamed appetite.
Soon after the end of Great Domestic, war in November 1945 the first secretary of Central Committee CP of Armenia G. Arutyunov in the letter to I. Stalin again lifts a question about Mountainous Garabagh, demanding to transfer this territory of Armenia. I. Stalin has transferred this letter to G. M. Malenkov. That, in turn, for the answer has sent its government of Azerbaijan. M.J. Baghirov has answered this letter witty enough: «Azerbaijan does not object to this offer under one condition that to him have been returned frontier with him, grounds historically belonging to Azerbaijan in Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR and Dagestan ASSR where the majority of the population is made by Azerbaijanis». This answer had been put a point in discussion of the offer of Arutyunov.
The Armenian government started to form new intrigues, trying to transform Armenia in mononational republic. To one of them began the decision of the government on violent resettlement of Azerbaijanis from Armenia.